About the projectSP1 - Transport Emissions    June 25, 2017  English (United States) English (United Kingdom)
Overview of SP1: Transport and emission sources

This subproject focuses on improving the emissions estimates from transport sources, particularly in those areas where existing data is uncertain or lacking. 

The major items to be delivered in this subproject are:

1. A dataset containing PM emissions of transport with different levels of detail with respect to the spatial distribution, to be used as input for following SP’s in air quality modelling and exposure. In the following text “PM-emissions” refer to particulate size distribution, for both mass and number of particles and any relevant precursor pollutant causing particulate to form in atmospheric reactions. 

2. Improved state-of-the-art methodology for the quantification of transport PM exhaust and non-exhaust emissions, using emission factors or profiles. The complete list of pollutants we will consider in the project are: PM1.0, PM2.5, PM10, number of ultrafine particles (PN0.1), elemental carbon, PAH, Nitro PH, NOx, SOx, VOC, metals (Lead, Pb, Chromium, Cr, Vanadium, V, Nickle, Ni, Cadmium, Cd, Platinum, Pt and Barium, Ba).

3. A dataset with transport activities per modes, and the vehicle stocks per age class and technology. This data will predominantly be used for the mitigation measures in SP5.

The level of disaggregation for the datasets will be: EU-scale (per country), Global scale (for maritime), Case city, spatial disaggregated and additional cities that can be extrapolated from the case cities. The dataset will consider the period 1990-2030. The historical data (1990-2005) will feed into the dose-response function calibration in SP3, the future years (2005-2030) will be used in the mitigation tasks of SP4 and SP5. It is not feasible to develop quantitative prognoses beyond 2030. However, a qualitative outlook for 2050 will be provided to support the policy evaluations in SP5.

CONTACT: Griet De Ceuster (SP leader), Zissis Samaras (SP deputy leader)

Work packages and their objectives
This work package will deliver emissions factors (functions) from road transport. The relevant emissions from road transport can be divided into three main groups:
  1. PM exhaust emissions, mainly ultrafine (PM0.1) and fine fraction (PM2.5)
  2. Non-exhaust emissions - deriving from tyre, brake and clutch wear and from road surface wear, mainly in the fine (PM2.5) and coarse fraction (PM10) of particles. These fractions contain zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd)
  3. PM precursors as lead Pb from petrol, VOC and NOx.
PM emissions are affected by traffic flow, vehicle fleet composition, driving pattern and weather conditions. In all emission groups, along with PM mass emission, number, size distributions, particle precursors and chemical speciation will also be considered. This work package will focus on adding new themes to the PM road emission state-of-the-art. This includes the effect of biofuels, new classic technologies (beyond Euro 4), particulate filters, size composition and chemical composition.
This work package will establish emission factors for the non-road traffic modes: Shipping, aviation and rail traffic. These factors will cover PM number and mass, size distribution and chemical composition. Variability of emission factors with operation mode of vessel or vehicle and with fuel and technology used will be investigated.

Emission factors for shipping will combine the state-of-the-art emission factors and PM characterisation data available at projects like ARTEMIS, HERCULES and QUANTIFY and at participating institutes’ databases with new measurements performed at two targeted campaigns. Particle processes such as nucleation, condensation growth and chemical transformation in early plume will be investigated making use of existing data from plume chasing measurements, onboard measurements and of a plume model resolving PM processes.

Emission factors for aviation will cover operation at the airport. State-of-the-art emission factors for aircraft engines during taxiing and the LTO cycle and for the airport working machinery will be prepared.

For railway state-of-the-art emission factors for locomotive Diesel engines will be prepared together with non-exhaust emission factors for rail-, wheel- and break-wear.
Baseline emission databases for all sources are already in use in the models of the consortium. This WP will focus on preparing a detailed baseline scenario for the transport sector. As a subtask, the consistency with the baseline emissions of non-transport sources will be taken into account. WP1.3 combines the inventory and projected transport activity and the identified emission factors from WP 1.1 & WP 1.2 to produce a transport PM-emission baseline up to 2030 (every 5 years). To this end, detailed transport activity data from case-study cities will be used as a basis to construct a generic urban emission model to refine the spatial resolution of urban PM-emissions. This resolution will be in line with the requirements of the air quality and exposure models.
SP1 partner list
Click the partner name for a full description. For a complete list of partners, see the list of partners.



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